The hidden cost of Entropy to your business

On Linux OS, there are two (2) device drivers that provide entropy “noise” for components that require encryption, e.g. the /dev/random and the /dev/urandom device drivers. The /dev/random is a “blocking” device driver. When the “noise” is low, any component that relies on this driver will be “stalled” until enough entropy is returned. We can measure the entropy from a range of 0-4096. Where a value over 1000 is excellent. Any value in the double or single digits will impact the performance of the OS and solutions with delays. The root cause of these delays is not evident during troubleshooting, and typically there are no warning nor error messages related to entropy.

watch -n 1 cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail

The Symantec Identity Suite solution, when deployed on Linux OS is typically deployed with the JVM switch -Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom for any component that uses Java (Oracle or AdoptOpenJDK), e.g. Wildfly (IM/IG/IP) and IAMCS (JCS). This JVM variable is sufficient for most use-cases to manage the encryption/hash needs of the solution.

However, for any component that does not provide a mechanism to use the alternative of /dev/urandom driver, the Linux OS vendors offer tools such as the “rng-tools” package. We can review what OS RNGD service is available using package tools, e.g.

dnf list installed | grep -i rng

If the Symantec Identity Suite or other solutions are deployed as standalone components, then we may adjust the Linux OS as we need with no restrictions to add the RNGD daemon as we wish. One favorite is the HAVEGED daemon over the default OS RNGD.

See prior notes on value and testing for Entropy on Linux OS (standalone deployments):

https://community.broadcom.com/enterprisesoftware/communities/community-home/digestviewer/viewthread?GroupId=2197&MID=720771&CommunityKey=f9d65308-ca9b-48b7-915c-7e9cb8fc3295&tab=digestviewer

https://community.broadcom.com/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=7747b411-2e1e-4bc2-8284-9b8856790ef9

Challenge for vApp

The challenge for Virtual Appliances is that we are limited to what functionality the Symantec Product Team provides for us to leverage. The RNGD service was available on the vApp r14.3, but was disabled for OS challenges with 100% utilization with CentOS 6.4. The service is still installed, but the actual binary is non-executable.

https://knowledge.broadcom.com/external/article/97774/ca-identity-suite-low-entropy-on-virtual.html
https://knowledge.broadcom.com/external/article/139759/ca-identity-suite-142-vapp-rngd-proces.html
https://broadcom-stage.adobecqms.net/us/en/symantec-security-software/identity-security/identity-suite/14-3/virtual-appliance/administering-virtual-appliance/using-the-login-shell.html

A new Virtual Appliance patch would be required to re-enable this RNGD on vApp r14.3cp2. We have access via sudo, to /sbin/chkconfig, /sbin/service to re-enable this service, but as the binary is not executable, we cannot progress any further. We can see the alias in the documentation still exist, but the OS alias was removed in the cp2 update.

However, since vApp r14.4 was release, we can focus on this Virtual Appliance which is running Centos 8 stream. The RNGD service here is disabled (masked) but can be re-enabled for our use with the sudo command. There is no current documented method for RNGD on vApp r14.4 at this time, but the steps below will show an approved way using the ‘config’ userID and sudo commands.

Confirm that the “rng-tools” package is installed and that the RNGD binary is executable. We can also see that the RNGD service is “masked”. Masked services are prevented from starting manually or automatically as an extra safety measure when we wish for tighter control over our systems.

If we test OS entropy for this vApp r14.4 server without RNGD, we can monitor how a simple BASH shell script that emulates a password being generated will impact the “entropy” of /dev/random. The below script will reduce the entropy to low numbers. This process will now impact the OS itself and any components that reference /dev/random. We can observe with “lsof /dev/random” that the java programs will still reference /dev/random; even though most activity is going to /dev/urandom.

Using the time command in the BASH shell script, we can see that the response is rapid for the first 20+ iterations, but as soon as the entropy is depleted, each execution is delayed by 10-30x times.

counter=1;MAX=100;while [ $counter -le $MAX ]; do echo "##########  $counter ##########" ; time dd if=/dev/random bs=8 count=1 2> /dev/null | base64; counter=$(( $counter + 1 )); done;

Enable RNGD on vApp r14.4 & Testing

Now let’s see what RNGD service will do for us when it is enabled. Let’s follow the steps below to unmask, enable, and start the RNGD service as the ‘config’ userID. We have access to sudo to the Centos 8 Stream command of /sbin/systemctl.

sudo /usr/bin/systemctl status rngd.service
ls -lart /etc/systemd/system/rngd.service
sudo /usr/bin/systemctl unmask rngd.service
sudo /usr/bin/systemctl enable rngd.service
cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/rngd.service
sudo /usr/bin/systemctl start rngd.service
sudo /usr/bin/systemctl status rngd.service
ps -ef | grep rngd | grep -v grep

After the RNGD service is enabled, test again with the same prior BASH shell script but bump the loops to 1000 or higher. Note using the time command we can see that each loop finishes within a fraction of a second.

counter=1;MAX=1000;while [ $counter -le $MAX ]; do echo "##########  $counter ##########" ; time dd if=/dev/random bs=8 count=1 2> /dev/null | base64; counter=$(( $counter + 1 )); done;

Summary

Aim to keep the solution footprint small and the right-sized to solve the business’ needs. Do not accept the default performance; avoid over-purchasing to scale to your expected growth.

Use the JVM switch wherever there is a java process, e.g. BLC or home-grown ETL (extract-transform-load) processes.

-Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom

If you suspect a dependence may impact the OS or other processes on /dev/random, then enable the OS RNGD and perform your testing. Monitor with the top command to ensure RNGD service is providing value and not impacting the solution.

Restart remote IMPD DATA DSAs after long outage

“DSA is attempting to start after a long outage, perform a recovery procedure before starting”

Challenge:   The IMPD (Identity Manager Provisioning Directory) Data DSAs have been offline for a while, e.g. 7 days+ (> 1 week), and the Symantec/CA Directory solution will, to protect the data, refuse to allow the DATA DSAs to start unless there is manual intervention to prevent the possibility of production data (Live DATA DSAs) being synced with older data (Offline DATA DSAs).

If we were concern, we would follow best practices and remove the offline DATA DSAs’ *.db & *.dp files, and replace the *.db with current copies of the Live DATA DSAs’ *.db files; generate temporary time files of *.dx and allow the time files of *.dp to rebuild themselves upon startup of the offline DATA DSAs.

Example to recover from an outage: https://anapartner.com/2020/08/21/directory-backup-and-restore-dar-scenarios/

However, if we are NOT concern, or the environment is non-production we can avoid the multiple shells, multiple commands to resync by using a combinations of bash shell commands. The proposal below outlines using the Symantec/CA Identity Suite virtual appliance, where both the IMPD and IMPS (Identity Manager Provisioning Server) components reside on the same servers.

Proposal:   Use a single Linux host to send remote commands as a single user ID; sudo to the ‘dsa’ and ‘imps’ service IDs, and issue commands to address the restart process.

Pre-Work:   For the Identity Suite vApp, recommend that .ssh keys be used to avoid using a password for the ‘config’ user IDs on all vApp nodes.

Example to setup .SSH keys for ‘config’ user ID: https://anapartner.com/2020/05/01/avoid-locking-a-userid-in-a-virtual-appliance/

If using .SSH keys, do not forget to use this shortcut to cache the local session: eval `ssh-agent` && ssh-add

Steps:   Issue the following bash commands with the correct IPs or hostnames.  

If possible, wrap the remote commands in a for-loop. The below example uses the local ‘config’ user ID, to ssh to remote servers, then issues a local su to the ‘dsa’ service ID. The ‘dsa’ commands may need to be wrapped as shown below to allow multiple commands to be executed together. We have a quick hostname check, stop all IMPD DATA DSAs, find the time-stamp file that is preventing the startup of the IMPD DATA DSAs and remove it, restart all IMPD DATA DSA, and then move on to the next server with the for-loop. The ‘imps’ commands are similar with a quick hostname check, status check, stop and start process, another status check, then move on to the next server in the for-loop.

for i in {136..141}; do ssh  -t config@192.168.242.$i "su - dsa -c \"hostname;dxserver stop all;pwd;find ./data/ -type f \( -name '*.dp' \) -delete  ;dxserver start all \" "; done

for i in {136..141}; do ssh  -t config@192.168.242.$i "su - imps -c \"hostname;imps status;imps stop;imps start;imps status \" "; done

View of for-loop commands output:

Additional: Process to assist with decision to sync or not sync.

Check if the number of total entries in each individual IMPD DATA DSA match with their peers (Multi-Write groups). Goal: Avoid any deltas > 1% between peers. The IMPD “main”, “co”, “inc” DATA DSA should be 100% in sync. We may see some minor flux in the “notify” DATA DSA, as this is temporary data used by the IMPS server to store data to be sent to the IME via the IME Call Back Process.

If there are any deltas, then we may export the IMPD DATA DSAs to LDIF files and then use the Symantec/CA Directory ldifdelta process to isolate and triage the deltas.

su - dsa    OR [ sudo -iu dsa ]
export HISTIGNORE=' *'             {USE THIS LINE TO FORCE HISTORY TO IGNORE ANY COMMANDS WITH A LEADING SPACE CHARACTER}
 echo -n Password01 > .impd.pwd ; chmod 600 .impd.pwd     {USE SPACE CHARACTER IN FRONT TO AVOID HISTORY USAGE}


# NOTIFY BRANCH (TCP 20404) 

for i in {135..140}; do echo "##########  192.168.242.$i IMPD NOTIFY DATA DSA ##########";LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://192.168.242.$i:20404 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'dc=notify,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount  |  perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g' ; done

# INC BRANCH (TCP 20398)

for i in {135..140}; do echo "##########  192.168.242.$i IMPD INC DATA DSA ##########";LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://192.168.242.$i:20398 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'eTInclusionContainerName=Inclusions,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount  |  perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g' ; done

# CO BRANCH (TCP 20396)

for i in {135..140}; do echo "##########  192.168.242.$i IMPD CO DATA DSA ##########";LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://192.168.242.$i:20396 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount  |  perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g' ; done

# MAIN BRANCH (TCP 20394)

for i in {135..140}; do echo "##########  192.168.242.$i IMPD MAIN DATA DSA ##########";LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://192.168.242.$i:20394 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount  |  perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g' ; done


NOTIFY DSA is temporary data and will have deltas. This DSA is used for the IME CALL BACK process.

ADS Endpoint Configuration Challenges and Hints

  1. Ensure the hostname entry is a FQDN or alias. It can not be an IP address if MS Exchange is to be managed through this connector, due to conflict with Kerberos authentication and IP addresses. If the object was created with an IP address, it may be changed via Jxplorer for two (2) attributes: eTADSprimaryServer and eTADSServerName.

2. General Information on the ADS Endpoint Logging Tab and where this information is stored. Only two (2) the Destination have value with current deployment, e.g. Text File & System Log (MS Windows Event viewer) for Active Directory (ADS). The “Text File” will output data to two (2) files: jcs\logs\ADS\<endpoint-name>.log and ccs\logs\ADS\<endpoint-name>.log

3. Use the MS Event Viewer on the ADS Domain Controller, or use the MS Event Viewer to remotely view the transactions on the remote ADS DC. Select the event codes of 627,628,4723,4724,4738 to start with. Other codes may be added that are useful. Ref: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/identity/ad-ds/plan/appendix-l–events-to-monitor

4. Additionally, the User ID may be in one of three (3) formats: UPN (serviceid@exchange.lab), NT ( domain\serviceid ), LDAP DN ( cn=serviceid,ou=people,dc=exchange,dc=lab). We recommend UPN or NT format to allow the embedded API features for MS Exchange powershell management to correctly function. If the ID is to be changed, a password update must be done as well, since the User ID is part of the seed for the encrypted password for the service ID to be stored in CA Directory on the ADS endpoint object.

5. SASL versus TLS authentication checkboxes. We can tested the ADS authentication availability using ldapsearch binary. Ports used by Active Directory for authentication by client tools, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/troubleshoot/windows-server/identity/config-firewall-for-ad-domains-and-trusts

Note: SASL is encrypted traffic. If wireshark is used to intercept the traffic, the service ID may be seen during initial authentication, but NOT the password nor the payload data.

Notes on SASL validation for Active Directory. {Pro: No need to worry about TLS certificates rotation on client connections – all TLS is managed by the server}

:: Search ADS / LDAP store what is offered for SASL (use -x for simple connection)
ldapsearch -x -h dc2016.exchange.lab -p 389 -b “” -LLL -s base supportedSASLMechanisms

EXAMPLE OUTPUT

[root@oracle ~]# ldapsearch -x -h dc2016.exchange.lab -p 389 -b “” -LLL -s base supportedSASLMechanisms
dn:
supportedSASLMechanisms: GSSAPI
supportedSASLMechanisms: GSS-SPNEGO
supportedSASLMechanisms: EXTERNAL
supportedSASLMechanisms: DIGEST-MD5

:: On Linux OS, execute rpm -qa to search for SASL installed modules/libraries.
rpm -qa | grep cyrus

EXAMPLE OUTPUT

[root@oracle ~]# rpm -qa | grep cyrus
cyrus-sasl-gssapi-2.1.26-23.el7.x86_64
cyrus-sasl-lib-2.1.26-23.el7.x86_64
cyrus-sasl-md5-2.1.26-23.el7.x86_64

:: On Linux OS, install missing SASL libraries & ldapsearch (ldap-client)
yum -y install cyrus-sasl-md5 cyrus-sasl-gssapi openldap-clients

TESTING DIFFERING AUTHENTICATION MECHANISMS #### (may remove -d9 debug switch to view cleaner results)

TLS

LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never ldapsearch -d9 -LLL -H ldaps://dc2016.exchange.lab:636 -w CAdemo123 -D “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -b “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -s base userAccountControl

Start TLS

LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never ldapsearch -d9 -Z -LLL -H ldap://dc2016.exchange.lab:389 -w CAdemo123 -D “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -b “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -s base userAccountControl

Digest-MD5

ldapsearch -d9 -LLL -H ldap://dc2016.exchange.lab -w CAdemo123 -Y DIGEST-MD5 -U Administrator -b “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -s base userAccountControl

Kerberos (GSS)

ldapsearch -d9 -LLL -H ldap://dc2016.exchange.lab -w CAdemo123 -Y GSSAPI -U Administrator -b “CN=Administrator,CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab” -s base userAccountControl

6. TCP/UDP Ports required for Active Directory Endpoint management per CA Documentation https://techdocs.broadcom.com/us/en/symantec-security-software/identity-security/identity-manager/14-4/reference/default-ports-for-ca-identity-manager-and-associated-components.html

SASL appears to connect on TCP 636 briefly, then use TCP 389 extensively. Other ports are 80 (Service), 135 (lsass.exe for home folders), 6405 (lsass.exe). If Kerberos authentication is defined for the service ID, then other ports will be used, e.g. 3268/3269. TCP 4104/4105 are for the legacy CAM/CAFT agents (typically not used any more).

Recommendation: Add these TCP Ports to any Firewall between the IM JCS/CCS Server and the Active Directory Domain Controllers to improve performance and avoid time-out delays.

MS Active Directory References on SASL.

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/openspecs/windows_protocols/ms-adts/989e0748-0953-455d-9d37-d08dfbf3998b

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/openspecs/windows_protocols/ms-adts/a98c1f56-8246-4212-8c4e-d92da1a9563b

Parallel provisioning for Active Directory and MS Exchange mailboxes – Improve Birthright/DayOne Access

One of the challenges that IAM/IAG solutions may have is using single thread processing for select endpoints. For the CA/Symantec Identity Management solution, before IM r14.3cp2, we lived with a single-threaded connector to managed MS Active Directory endpoints.

To address this challenge, we deployed multiple connector servers. We allowed the IM Provisioning Server (IMPS) to use a built-in round-robin approach of load-balancing separate transactions to different connector servers, which would service the same Active Directory endpoints.

The IME may be running as fast as it can with its clustered deployment, but as soon as a task has MS Active Directory, and there is a bottleneck with the CCS Service. We begin to see the IME JMS queue reporting that it is stuck and the IME View Submitted Task reporting “In Progress” for all tasks. If the CCS service is restarted, all IME tasks are then reported as “Failed.”

This is/was the bottleneck for the solution for sites that have MS Active Directory for Birthright/DayOne Access.

We can now avoid this bottleneck. [*** (5/24/2021) – There is an enhancement to CP2 to address im_ccs.exe crashes during peak loads discovered using this testing process. ]

Via the newly delivered enhancement https://community.broadcom.com/participate/ideation-home/viewidea?IdeationKey=7154e15b-085d-469e-bff0-ac588ff6bd5b .

We now have full parallel provisioning to MS Active Directory from a single connector server (JCS/CCS).

The new attribute that regulates this behavior is eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool. This attribute will be applied on every existing ADS endpoint that is currently being managed by the IM Provisioning Server after CP2 is deployed. Note: The default value is 10, but we recommend after much testing, to match the value of the IMPS-> JCS and JCS->CCS to equal 200.

During testing within the IME using Bulk Tasks or the IM BLC, we can see that the CCS-> ADS traffic will reach 20-30 connections if allowed. You may set this attribute to a value of 200 via Jxplorer and/or an ldapmodify/dxmodify script.

echo "############### SET ADS MAX CONNECTIONS IN POOL SIZE ##################"
IMPS_HOST=192.168.242.135
IMPS_PORT=20389
IMPS_USER='eTGlobalUserName=etaadmin,eTGlobalUserContainerName=Global Users,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=eta'
IMPS_PWD="Password01"
NAMESPACE=exchange2016
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxmodify -H ldap://$IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -c -x -D "$IMPS_USER" -w "$IMPS_PWD" << EOF
dn: eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=eta
changetype: modify
eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool: 200
EOF
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxsearch -LLL -H ldap://$IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -x -D "$IMPS_USER" -w "$IMPS_PWD" -b "eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=eta" -s base eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool | perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g'

To confirm the number of open connections is greater than one (1), we can issue a Bulk IM Task or use a performance tool like CA Directory dxsoak.

In this example, we will show case using CA Directory dxsoak to execute 100 parallel threads to create 100 ADS Accounts with MS Exchange Mailboxes. We will also enclose this script for download for others to review and use.

Performance Lab:

Pre-Steps:

  1. Leverage CA Directory samples’ dxsoak binary (performance testing). You may wish to use CA Directory on an existing IM Provisioning Server (Linux OS) or you may deploy CA Directory (MS Windows version) to the JCS/CCS connector. Examples are provided for both OSes.
  2. Create LDIF files for IM Provisioning Server and/or IM Connector Tier. This file is needed to ‘push’ the solution to-failure. The use of the IME Bulk Task and/or etautil scripts to the IM Provisioning Tier, will not provide the transaction speed we need to break the CCS service if possible.
  3. Within the IM Provisioning Manager enable the ADS Endpoint TXT Logs on the Logging TAB, for all checkboxes.
  4. Monitor the IMPS etatrans* logs, monitor the JCS ADS logs, monitor the CCS ADS logs, monitor the number of CCS-> ADS (LDAP/S – TCP 389/636) threads. [Suggest using MS Sysinternals Process Explorer and select im_ccs.exe & then TCP/IP TAB]
  5. Monitor the MS ADS Domain via MS ADUC (AD Users & Computers UI) and MS Exchange Mailbox (Mailbox UI via Browser)

Execution:

6. Perform a UNIT TEST with dxmodify/ldapmodify to confirm the LDIF file input is correct with the correct suffix.

time dxmodify -H ldap://192.168.242.135:20389 -c -x -D "eTGlobalUserName=etaadmin,eTGlobalUserContainerName=Global Users,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=eta" -w Password01 -f ads_user_with_exchange_dc_eta.ldif

7. Perform the PERFORMANCE TEST with dxsoak binary with the same LDIF file & correct suffix. Rate observed = 23 K ids/hr

./dxsoak -c -l 60 -t 100 -h 192.168.242.135:20389 -D "eTGlobalUserName=etaadmin,eTGlobalUserContainerName=Global Users,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=eta" -w Password01 -f ads_user_with_exchange_dc_eta.ldif

Observations:

8. IMPS etatrans*.log – Count the number of operations per second. Note any RACE and/or data collisions, e.g. ADS accounts deleted prior to add via 100 threads or ADS account created multiple times attempted in different threads.

9. IM CCS ADS <endpoint>.log – Will only have useful data if the ADS Endpoint Logging TAB has been checked for TXT logs.

10. Finally, validate directly in MS Active Domain with the ADUC or similar tool & MS Exchange mailboxes being created/deleted.

11. Count the number of threads from im_ccs.exe to ADS – Suggest using MS Sysinternals Process Explorer tool and/or Powershell to count the number of connections.

MS Powershell Script to count the number of LDAP (TCP 389) connection from im_ccs.exe. [Note: TCP 389 is used more if the ADS Endpoint is setup to use SASL authentication. TCP 636 is used more if the ADS Endpoint is using the older TLS authentication]

$i=1
Do {
cls
(Get-NetTCPConnection -State Established -OwningProcess (Get-Process -name im_ccs).id -RemotePort 389).count
Start-Sleep -s 1
$i++
}
while ($i -le 5)

Direct Performance Testing to JCS/CCS Service

While this testing has limited value, it can offer satisfaction and assistance to troubleshoot any challenges. We can use the prior LDIF files with a slightly different suffix, dc=etasa (instead of dc=eta), to use dxsoak to push the connector tier to failure. This step helped provide memory dumps back to CA/Symantec Engineering teams to help isolate challenges within the parallel processing. CCS Service is only exposed via localhost. If you wish to test the CCS Service remotely, then update the MS Registry key for the CCS service to use the external IP address of the JCS/CCS Server. Rate observed = 25 K ids/hr

Script to generate 100 ADS Accounts with MS Exchange Mailbox Creation

You may wish to review this script and adjust it for your ADS / MS Exchange domains for testing. You can also create a simple LDIF file with password resets or ADS group membership adds. Just remember that the IMPS Service (TCP 20389/20390) uses the suffix dc=eta, and the IM JCS/CCS Services (TCP 20410/20411) & (TCP 20402/20403) use the suffix dc=etasa. Additionally, if using CA Directory dxsoak, only use the non-TLS ports, as this binary is not equipped for using TLS certs.

#!/bin/bash
#######################################################################################################################
# Name:  Generate ADS Feed Files for IM Solution Provisioning/Connector Tiers
#
# Goal:  Validate the new parallel processes from the IM Connector Tier to Active Directory with MS Exchange
#
#
# Generate ADS User LDIF file(s) for use with unit (dxmodify) and performance testing (dxsoak) to:
#  - {Note: dxsoak will only work with non-TLS ports}
#
# IM JCS (20410)  "dc=etasa"    {Ensure MS Windows Firewall allows this port to be exposed}
# IM CCS (20402)  "dc=etasa"    {This port is localhost only, may open to network traffic via registry update}
# IMPS (20389)    "dc=eta"
#
#
# Monitor:  
#
# The IMPS etatrans*.log  {exclude searches}
# The JCS daily log
# The JCS ADS log {Enable the ADS Endpoint TXT logging for all checkboxes}
# The CCS ADS log {Enable the ADS Endpoint TXT logging for all checkboxes}
#
# Execute per the examples provided during run of this file
#
#
# ANA 05/2021
#######################################################################################################################

# Unique Variables for an ADS Domain
NAMESPACE=exchange2016
ADSDOMAIN=exchange.lab
DCDOMAIN="DC=exchange,DC=lab"
OU=People

#######################################################################################################################


MAX=100
start=00001
counter=$start
echo "###############################################################"
echo "###############################################################"
START=`/bin/date --utc +%Y%m%d%H%M%S,%3N.0Z`
echo `/bin/date --utc +%Y%m%d%H%M%S,%3N.0Z`" = Current OS UTC time stamp"
echo "###############################################################"
FILE1=ads_user_with_exchange_dc_etasa.ldif
FILE2=ads_user_with_exchange_dc_eta.ldif
echo "" > $FILE1
while [ $counter -le $MAX ]
do
    n=$((10000+counter)); n=${n#1}
    tz=`/bin/date --utc +%Y%m%d%H%M%S,3%N.0Z`
   echo "Counter with leading zeros = $n   at time:  $tz"


cat << EOF >> $FILE1
dn:  eTADSAccountName=firstname$n aaalastname$n,eTADSOrgUnitName=$OU,eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=etasa
changetype: add
objectClass:  eTADSAccount
eTADSobjectClass:  user
eTADSAccountName:  firstname$n aaalastname$n
eTADSgivenName:  firstname$n
eTADSsn:  aaalastname$n
eTADSdisplayName:  firstname$n aaalastname$n
eTADSuserPrincipalName:  aaatestuser$n@$ADSDOMAIN
eTADSsAMAccountName:  aaatestuser$n
eTPassword:  Password01
eTADSpwdLastSet:  -1
eTSuspended:  0
eTADSuserAccountControl:  0000000512
eTADSDescription:  description $tz
eTADSphysicalDeliveryOfficeName:  office
eTADStelephoneNumber:  111-222-3333
eTADSmail:  aaatestuser$n@$ADSDOMAIN
eTADSwwwHomePage:  web.page.lab
eTADSotherTelephone:  111-222-3333
eTADSurl:  other.web.page.lab
eTADSstreetAddress:  street address line01
eTADSpostOfficeBox:  pobox 111
eTADSl:  city
eTADSst:  state
eTADSpostalCode:  11111
eTADSco:  UNITED STATES
eTADSc:  US
eTADScountryCode:  840
eTADSscriptPath:  loginscript.cmd
eTADSprofilePath:  \profile\path\here
eTADShomePhone:  111-222-3333
eTADSpager:  111-222-3333
eTADSmobile:  111-222-3333
eTADSfacsimileTelephoneNumber:  111-222-3333
eTADSipPhone:  111-222-3333
eTADSinfo:  Notes Here
eTADSotherHomePhone:  111-222-3333
eTADSotherPager:  111-222-3333
eTADSotherMobile:  111-222-3333
eTADSotherFacsimileTelephoneNumber:  111-222-3333
eTADSotherIpPhone:  111-222-3333
eTADStitle:  title
eTADSdepartment:  department
eTADScompany:  company
eTADSmanager:  CN=manager_fn manager_ln,OU=$OU,$DCDOMAIN
eTADSmemberOf:  CN=Backup Operators,CN=Builtin,$DCDOMAIN
eTADSlyncSIPAddressOption: 0000000000
eTADSdisplayNamePrintable: aaatestuser$n
eTADSmailNickname: aaatestuser$n
eTADShomeMDB: (Automatic Mailbox Distribution)
eTADShomeMTA: CN=DC001,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=First Organization,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,$DCDOMAIN
eTAccountStatus: A
eTADSmsExchRecipientTypeDetails: 0000000001
eTADSmDBUseDefaults: TRUE
eTADSinitials: A
eTADSaccountExpires: 9223372036854775807

EOF
 counter=$(( $counter + 00001 ))
done


#  Create the delete ADS Process
start=00001
counter=$start
while [ $counter -le $MAX ]
do
    n=$((10000+counter)); n=${n#1}
    tz=`/bin/date --utc +%Y%m%d%H%M%S,3%N.0Z`
   echo "Counter with leading zeros = $n   at time:  $tz"


cat << EOF >> $FILE1
dn:  eTADSAccountName=firstname$n aaalastname$n,eTADSOrgUnitName=$OU,eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=etasa
changetype: delete

EOF
 counter=$(( $counter + 00001 ))
done

echo ""
echo "################################### ADS USER OBJECT STATS ################################################################"
echo "Number of add objects: `grep "changetype: add" $FILE1 | wc -l`"
echo "Number of delete objects: `grep "changetype: delete" $FILE1 | wc -l`"
rm -rf $FILE2
cp -r -p $FILE1 $FILE2
sed -i 's|,dc=im,dc=etasa|,dc=im,dc=eta|g' $FILE2
ls -lart $FILE1
ls -lart $FILE2

echo ""
echo "################################### SET ADS MAX CONNECTIONS IN POOL SIZE ################################################################"
IMPS_HOST=192.168.242.135
IMPS_PORT=20389
IMPS_USER='eTGlobalUserName=etaadmin,eTGlobalUserContainerName=Global Users,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=eta'
IMPS_PWD="Password01"
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxmodify  -H ldap://$IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -c -x -D "$IMPS_USER" -w "$IMPS_PWD"  << EOF
dn: eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=eta
changetype: modify
eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool: 200
EOF
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxsearch -LLL  -H ldap://$IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -x -D "$IMPS_USER" -w "$IMPS_PWD" -b "eTADSDirectoryName=$NAMESPACE,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=eta" -s base eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool | perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g'

echo ""
echo "################################### CCS UNIT & PERF TEST ################################################################"
CCS_HOST=192.168.242.80
CCS_PORT=20402
CCS_USER="cn=root,dc=etasa"
CCS_PWD="Password01"
echo "Execute this command to the CCS Service to test single thread with dxmodify or ldapmodify"
echo "dxmodify  -H ldap://$CCS_HOST:$CCS_PORT -c -x -D $CCS_USER -w $CCS_PWD -f $FILE1 "
echo "Execute this command to the CCS Service to test 100 threads with dxsoak "
echo "./dxsoak -c -l 60 -t 100 -h $CCS_HOST:$CCS_PORT -D $CCS_USER -w $CCS_PWD -f $FILE1 "

echo ""
echo "################################### JCS UNIT & PERF TEST ################################################################"
CCS_HOST=192.168.242.80
CCS_PORT=20410
CCS_USER="cn=root,dc=etasa"
CCS_PWD="Password01"
echo "Execute this command to the JCS Service to test single thread with dxmodify or ldapmodify "
echo "dxmodify  -H ldap://$CCS_HOST:$CCS_PORT -c -x -D $CCS_USER -w $CCS_PWD -f $FILE1 "
echo "Execute this command to the JCS Service to test 100 threads with dxsoak "
echo "./dxsoak -c -l 60 -t 100 -h $CCS_HOST:$CCS_PORT -D $CCS_USER -w $CCS_PWD -f $FILE1 "


echo ""
echo "################################### IMPS UNIT & PERF TEST ################################################################"
IMPS_HOST=192.168.242.135
IMPS_PORT=20389
IMPS_USER='eTGlobalUserName=etaadmin,eTGlobalUserContainerName=Global Users,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=eta'
IMPS_PWD="Password01"
echo "Execute this command to the IMPS Service to test single thread with dxmodify or ldapmodify "
echo "dxmodify  -H ldap://$IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -c -x -D \"$IMPS_USER\" -w $IMPS_PWD -f $FILE2 "
echo "Execute this command to the IMPS Service to test 100 threads with dxsoak "
echo "./dxsoak -c -l 60 -t 100 -h $IMPS_HOST:$IMPS_PORT -D \"$IMPS_USER\" -w $IMPS_PWD -f $FILE2 "




Address the new bottleneck of MS Exchange / O365 Provisioning.

After parallel provisioning has been introduced with the new im_ccs.exe service, you may noticed that the number of transactions is still being throttled during performance testing.

Out-of-the-box MS Active Directory Global Throttling Policy has the parameter of PowerShellMaxConcurrency set to a default of 18 connection. Any provisioning that uses MS Powershell for MS Exchange and/or MS O365 will be impacted by this default parameter.

To address this bottleneck, we can create a new Throttling Policy and only assign the service ID that will be managing identities, to avoid a global change.

Example: New-ThrottlingPolicy MaxPowershell -PowerShellMaxConcurrency 100 & Set-Mailbox “User Name” -ThrottlingPolicy MaxPowershell

After this change has been made, restart the IM JCS/CCS Services, and retest again with your performance tools. Review the CCS ADS log for # of creations in 60 seconds, and you will be pleasantly surprise at the rate. The logs are the strong confirmation we are looking for.

Performance test (947 ADS accounts w/Exchange mailboxes in 60 seconds, 08:59:54 to  09:00:53) => Rate of 15 ids/second   (or 54 K ids/hr) with updated MaxPowershell = 100 thottlingpolicy.

The last bottleneck appears to be CPU availability to MS Exchange Supporting Services, w3wp.exe, the MS IIS Service. Which appears to be managing MS Powershell connections per its startup string of

" c:\windows\system32\inetsrv\w3wp.exe -ap "MSExchangePowerShellAppPool" -v "v4.0" -c "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V15\bin\GenericAppPoolConfigWithGCServerEnabledFalse.config" -a \.\pipe\iisipme304c50e-6b42-4b26-83a4-229ee037be5d -h "C:\inetpub\temp\apppools\MSExchangePowerShellAppPool\MSExchangePowerShellAppPool.config" -w "" -m 0"

LDAP MITM Methodology to isolate data challenge

The Symantec (CA/Broadcom) Directory solution provides a mechanism for routing LDAPv3 traffic to other solutions. This routing mechanism allows Symantec Directory to act as a virtual directory service for other directories, e.g., MS Active Directory, SunOne, Novell eDirectory, etc.


The Symantec Identity Suite solution uses the LDAP protocol for its mid-tier and connector-tier components. The Provisioning Server is exposed on TCP 20389/20390, the JCS (Java Connector Server) is exposed on TCP 20410/20411, and the CCS (C++ Connector Server) is exposed on TCP 20402/20403.


We wished to isolate provisioning data challenges within the Symantec Identity Management solution that was not fully viewable using the existing debugging logs & features of the provisioning tier & connector tiers. Using Symantec Directory, we can leverage the routing mechanism to build a MITM (man-in-the-middle) methodology to track all LDAP traffic through the Symantec Identity Manager connector tier.


We focused on the final leg of provisioning and created a process to track the JCS -> CCS LDAP traffic. We wanted to understand what and how the data was being sent from the JCS to the CCS to isolate issues to the CCS service and MS Active Directory. Using the trace level of Symantec Directory, we can capture all LDAP traffic, including binds/queries/add/modify actions.

The below steps showcase how to use Symantec Directory as an approved MITM process for troubleshooting exercises. We found this process more valuable than deploying Wireshark on the JCS/CCS Server and decoding the encrypted traffic for LDAP.

Background:

Symantec Directory documentation on routing. Please note the concept / feature of “set transparent-routing = true;” to avoid schema challenges when routing to other directory/ldap solutions.

https://techdocs.broadcom.com/us/en/symantec-security-software/identity-security/directory/14-1/ca-directory-concepts/directory-distribution-and-routing.html

MITM Methodology for JCS->CCS Service:

The Symantec Identity Management connector tier may be deployed on MS Windows or Linux OS. If the CCS service is being used, then MS Windows OS is required for this MS Visual C++ component/service. As we are focused on the CCS service, we will introduce the Symantec Directory solution on the same MS Windows OS.

NOTE: We will keep the MITM process contained on a single host, and will not redirect the network traffic beyond the host.

Step 1: Deploy the latest Symantec Directory solution on MS Windows OS. This deployment is a blank slate for the next steps to follow.

Step 2: Copy the folders of schema, limits, and ssld from an existing Symantec Directory deployment of the Symantec Identity Manager solution. Using the existing schema files, references, and certificates will allow us to avoid any challenges during startup of the Router DSA due to the pre-defined provisioning/connector tier configurations. Please note when copying from a Linux OS version of Symantec Directory, we will need to update the path from Linux format to MS Windows format in the SSLD impd.dxc file for “cert-dir” and “ca-file” parameters.

# DXserver/config/ssld/impd.dxc

set ssl = {
cert-dir = "C:\Program Files\CA\Directory\dxserver\config\ssld\personalities"
ca-file = "C:\Program Files\CA\Directory\dxserver\config\ssld\impd_trusted.pem"
cipher = "HIGH:!SSLv2:!EXP:!aNULL:!eNULL"
#protocol = tlsv12
fips = false
};

Step 3: Create a new Router DSA DXI configuration file. This is the primary configuration file for Symantec Directory DSA. It will referenced the schema, knowledge, limits, and certificates for the DSA. Note the parameters for “transparent-routing” to avoid schema challenges with other solutions. Note the trace level used to trace the LDAP traffic in the Symantec Directory Router DSA trace log.

# DXserver/config/servers/admin_router_ccs_30402.dxi

# logging and tracing 
close summary-log; 
close trace-log; 
source "../logging/default.dxc"; 
 
# schema 
clear schema; 
source "../schema/impd.dxg";
 
# access controls 
clear access; 
# source "../access/"; 
 
# ssld
source "../ssld/impd.dxc";

# knowledge 
clear dsas; 
source "../knowledge/admin_router_ccs_group.dxg"; 
 
# operational settings 
source "../settings/default.dxc"; 
 
# service limits 
source "../limits/impd.dxc"; 

# database  - none - transparent router
set transparent-routing=TRUE;

# tunnel through eAdmin server error code and  messages
set route-non-compliant-ldap-error-codes = true;

set trace=ldap,time,stats;
#set trace=dsa,time;

Step 4: Create the three (3) knowledge files. The “group” knowledge file will be used to redirect to the other two (2) knowledge files of the router DSA and the re-direct DSA to the CCS service.

# DXserver/config/knowledge/admin_router_ccs_group.dxg 
# The admin_router_ccs_30402.dxc PORT 30402 
# will be used for the IAMCS (JCS) CCS port override configuration file
# server_ccs.properties via proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerPort=30402

source "admin_router_ccs_30402.dxc";
source "admin_ccs_server_01.dxc";
# DXserver/config/knowledge/admin_router_ccs_30402.dxc 
# This file is sourced by admin_router_ccs_group.dxg.
 
set dsa admin_router_ccs_30402 =  
{ 
    prefix        = <> 
    dsa-name      = <dc etasa><cn admin_router_ccs_30402> 
    dsa-password  = "secret"
    address       = ipv4 localhost port 30402
    snmp-port     = 22500
    console-port  = 22501
    auth-levels   = clear-password
    dsp-idle-time = 100000 
    trust-flags = allow-check-password, trust-conveyed-originator
    link-flags    = ssl-encryption-remote
};
# DXserver/config/knowledge/admin_ccs_server_01.dxc
# This file is sourced by admin_router_ccs_group.dxg.

set dsa admin_ccs_server_01 =  
{ 
     prefix        = <dc etasa> 
     dsa-name      = <dc etasa><cn admin_ccs_server_01> 
     dsa-password  = "secret"
     address       = ipv4 localhost port 20402
     auth-levels   = clear-password
     dsp-idle-time = 100000
     dsa-flags     = load-share
     trust-flags   = allow-check-password, no-server-credentials, trust-conveyed-originator
     link-flags    = dsp-ldap
     #link-flags    = dsp-ldap, ssl-encryption
     # Note:  ssl will require update to /etc/hosts with:  <IP_Address>  eta_server

};

Step 5: Update the JCS configuration file that contains the TCP port that we will be redirecting to. In this example, we will declare TCP 30402 to be the new port.

#C:\Program Files (x86)\CA\Identity Manager\Connector Server\jcs\conf\override\server_ccs.properties

ccsWindowsController.ccsScriptPath=C:\\Program Files (x86)\\CA\\Identity Manager\\Connector Server\\ccs\\bin
proxyCCSManager.enabled=true
proxyCCSManager.startupWait=30
proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerHostname=localhost
#proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerPort=20402
proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerPort=30402
proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerUser=cn=root,dc=etasa
proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerPassword={AES}pbj27RvWGakDKCr+DhRH4Q==
proxyConnectionConfig.proxyServerUseSsl=false
proxyCCSManager.controller.ref=ccsWindowsController

Overview of all files updated and their relationship to each other.

Validation

Start up the solution in the following order. Ensure that the new Symantec Directory Router DSA is starting with no issue. If there are any syntax issues, isolate them with the command: dxserver -d start DSA_NAME.

Start the Router DSA first, then restart the im_jcs (JCS) service. The im_ccs (CCS) service will be auto-started by the JCS service. Wait one (1) minute, then check that both TCP Ports 20402 (CCS) and 30402 (Router DSA) are both in the LISTEN state. If we do not see these both ports, please stop and restart these services.

May use MS Sysinternals ProcessExplorer to monitor both services and using the TCP/IP tab, to view which ports are being used.

A view of the im_ccs.exe and dxserver.exe services and which TCP ports they are listening on.

Use a 3rd party LDAP client tool, such as Jxplorer to authenticate to both the CCS and the Router DSA ports, with the embedded service ID of “cn=root,dc=etasa”. We should see exactly the SAME data.

Use the IME or IMPS to perform a query to MS Active Directory (or any other endpoint that uses the CCS connector tier). We should now see the “cache” on the CCS service be populated with the endpoint information, and the base DN structure. We can now track all LDAP traffic through the Router DSA MITM process.

View of trace logs

We can monitor when the JCS first binds to the CCS service.

We can monitor when the IMPS via the JCS queries if the CCS is aware of the ADS endpoint.

Finally, we can view when the IMPS service decrypt its stored information on the Active Directory endpoint, and push this information to the CCS cache, to allow communication to MS Active Directory. Using Notepad++ we can tail the trace log.

Please note, this is a secure LDAP/S tunnel from the IMPS -> JCS -> CCS -> MS ADS.

We can now view how this data is pushed via this secure tunnel with the MITM process.

> [88] 
> [88] <-- #1 LDAP MESSAGE messageID 5
> [88] AddRequest
> [88]  entry: eTADSDirectoryName=ads2016,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=etasa
> [88]  attributes:
> [88]   type: eTADSobjectCategory
> [88]   value: CN=Domain-DNS,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTADSdomainFunctionality
> [88]   value: 7
> [88]   type: eTADSUseSSL
> [88]   value: 3
> [88]   type: eTADSexchangeGroups
> [88]   value: CN=Mailbox Database 0840997559,CN=Databases,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=im,CN=Databases,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTLogWindowsEventSeverity
> [88]   value: FE
> [88]   type: eTAccountResumable
> [88]   value: 1
> [88]   type: eTADSnetBIOS
> [88]   value: EXCHANGE
> [88]   type: eTLogStdoutSeverity
> [88]   value: FE
> [88]   type: eTLog
> [88]   value: 0
> [88]   type: eTLogUnicenterSeverity
> [88]   value: FE
> [88]   type: eTADSlockoutDuration
> [88]   value: -18000000000
> [88]   type: objectClass
> [88]   value: eTADSDirectory
> [88]   type: eTLogETSeverity
> [88]   value: FE
> [88]   type: eTADSmsExchSystemObjectsObjectVersion
> [88]   value: 13240
> [88]   type: eTADSsettings
> [88]   value: 3
> [88]   type: eTADSconfig
> [88]   value: ExpirePwd=0
> [88]   value: HomeDirInheritPermission=0
> [88]   type: eTLogDestination
> [88]   value: F
> [88]   type: eTADSUserContainer
> [88]   value: CN=BuiltIn;CN=Users
> [88]   type: eTADSbackupDirs
> [88]   value: 000;DEFAULT;192.168.242.156;0
> [88]   value: 001;DEFAULT;dc2016.exchange.lab;0
> [88]   value: 002;site1;server1.domain.com;0
> [88]   value: 003;site1;server2.domain.com;0
> [88]   value: 004;site2;server3.domain.com;0
> [88]   value: 005;site2;server4.domain.com;0
> [88]   type: eTADSuseFailover
> [88]   value: 1
> [88]   type: eTLogAuditSeverity
> [88]   value: FE
> [88]   type: eTADS-DefaultContext
> [88]   value: exchange.lab
> [88]   type: eTADSforestFunctionality
> [88]   value: 7
> [88]   type: eTADSAuthDN
> [88]   value: Administrator
> [88]   type: eTADSlyncMaxConnection
> [88]   value: 5
> [88]   type: eTADShomeMTA
> [88]   value: CN=Microsoft MTA,CN=EXCHANGE2016,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTADSAuthPWD
> [88]   value: CAdemo123
> [88]   type: eTADSexchangelegacyDN
> [88]   value: /o=ExchangeLab/ou=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT)/cn=Configuration/cn=Servers/cn=EXCHANGE2016/cn=Microsoft Private MDB
> [88]   type: eTLogFileSeverity
> [88]   value: F
> [88]   type: eTADSprimaryServer
> [88]   value: dc2016.exchange.lab
> [88]   type: eTADScontainers
> [88]   value: CN=Builtin,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Computers,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: OU=Domain Controllers,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: OU=Explore,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=ForeignSecurityPrincipals,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Keys,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Managed Service Accounts,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: OU=Microsoft Exchange Security Groups,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: OU=o365,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: OU=People,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Program Data,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Users,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTADSTimeBoundMembershipsEnabled
> [88]   value: 0
> [88]   type: eTADSexchange
> [88]   value: 1
> [88]   type: eTADSdomainControllerFunctionality
> [88]   value: 7
> [88]   type: eTADSexchangeStores
> [88]   value: CN=EXCHANGE2016,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Mailbox,CN=Transport Configuration,CN=EXCHANGE2016,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   value: CN=Frontend,CN=Transport Configuration,CN=EXCHANGE2016,CN=Servers,CN=Exchange Administrative Group (FYDIBOHF23SPDLT),CN=Administrative Groups,CN=ExchangeLab,CN=Microsoft Exchange,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTADSKeepCamCaftFiles
> [88]   value: 0
> [88]   type: eTADSmsExchSchemaVersion
> [88]   value: 15333
> [88]   type: eTADSCamCaftTimeout
> [88]   value: 0000001800
> [88]   type: eTADSMaxConnectionsInPool
> [88]   value: 0000000101
> [88]   type: eTADSPortNum
> [88]   value: 389
> [88]   type: eTADSDCDomain
> [88]   value: DC=exchange,DC=lab
> [88]   type: eTADSServerName
> [88]   value: 192.168.242.156
> [88]   type: eTADSDirectoryName
> [88]   value: ads2016
> [88]   type: eTAccountDeletable
> [88]   value: 1
> [88] controls:
> [88]   controlType: 2.16.840.1.113730.3.4.2
> [88]   non-critical

We can now monitor all traffic and assist with troubleshooting any CCS/MS-ADS challenges.

This same MITM methodology/process may also be used for the IMPS (TCP 20389/2039) and the JCS (TCP 20410/20411) services. We have used this process to capture the IME (JIAM) LDAP traffic to the IMPS Service, to isolate multiple queries for Child Provisioning Roles. Which has been used by the product team to enhance the solution to lower startup durations of the IME in the latest releases.

Binds/queries/add/modification all work with this approach, but we do see an issue with OID for IMPS ADS endpoint “explore process” on ADS OU object. We are reviewing how to address this last challenge that states “critical extension is unavailable” for a LDAP control property of the OU object. The OIDs captured appear to be related to SunOne/Iplanet.

JCS versus CCS Connector Tier Challenges

A very common challenge we see is the modification of the CA/Symantec Connector Server Service(s) startup order for the embedded C++ (CCS) Connector. This CCS connector service on MS Windows OS is marked default as “Manual” startup.

Since the solution documentation is not clear on why this is configured as manual, we will see site’ administrators that will either change this service from “Manual” to “Automatic” or will start the CCS service manually themselves upon a restart.

However, either of these processes will impact the ability of the JCS Service from managing the CCS Services cache upon startup. The JCS will NOT be able to manage the CCS service for a number of minutes until it can resolve this challenge. Unfortunately, when this occurs, the traffic to any CCS managed endpoints will be placed in a long time out within the JCS Service. The IMPS (Provisioning Service) will think that it successfully handed off the task to the JCS/CCS tier, but the task will stay in a holding pattern until either the memory of the JCS is overwhelmed or the CCS Service restarts/crashes or a timeout of the task.

TL;DR – Please do not start the CCS Service manually. Only stop/start the JCS Service, wait a full minute and you should see the CCS Service start up. If the CCS Service does NOT start, investigate why.

JCS Service’s management of the CCS Service:

To understand how the JCS Service manages the CCS Service (via localhost TCP 20402), we can review two (2) files and use MS Sysinternals Process Explorer to view the JCS Service starting the CCS Service via the command “net start im_ccs”. The JCS Service will now have access to update the CCS service’s cache with information for a managed endpoint, e.g. Active Directory.

The two (2) JCS Service configuration files for CCS Service are:

  • C:\Program Files (x86)\CA\Identity Manager\Connector Server\jcs\conf\server_osgi_ccs.xml [File contains startup properties of how the JCS will manage timeouts to the CCS Service & connections pools]
  • C:\Program Files (x86)\CA\Identity Manager\Connector Server\jcs\conf\override\server_ccs.properties [File contains the bind credentials and the service port to communicate to on localhost:20402. The password hash will be PBES or AES format depending if FIPS is enabled.]

And finally a view of the startup of the CCS Service via JCS Service using MS Sysinternals Process Explorer https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/process-explorer We can see that a child process is started from the JCS Service that will call the MS Windows “net.exe” command and execute “net start im_ccs”

Keeping the JCS Service and CCS Service as-is for startup processes will help avoid confusion for the provisioning tier of the CA/Symantec solution. Please only stop/start the JCS Service. If the CCS Service does not stop after 2 minutes, kill it. But never start the CCS by itself.

A view of the data path from IMPS (IM Provisioning Server) to Active Directory (manage endpoint) via the Connector tier.

Performance Improvements

While we may not adjust the startup from manual to automatic, we can enhance the default configurations for performance and timeout improvements. The JCS Service starts up with a default of 1 GB RAM. The JCS Service is 64 bit based on using 64 bit JAVA and the memory can be increased accordingly. After testing with large data sets, we recommend increasing the JCS JVM max memory from 1 GB to 4 GB. We can confirm after startup of the JCS will use over 1 GB of RAM with MS Sysinternals Process Explorer.

Other improvement include updating the JAVA that is supporting the JCS Service. CA/Symantec now recommends using AdoptOpenJDK. The documentation now explains how this may be updated in-place. Or as we prefer to reinstall and allow the installer to update the path statements for AdoptOpenJDK.

The below image below shows in the MS Windows Registry for the JCS Service (Procrun 2.0/im_jcs) the key value pairs that are updated for AdoptOpenJDK. https://adoptopenjdk.net/ If managing Active Directory, please review your OS environmental variables to control the behavior from the CCS Service to Active Directory.

After you restart the JCS Service, open the JCS Administration Console via http://localhost:20080/main or https://localhost:20443/main right click on the “Local Connector Server” ICON and it should display that AdoptOpenJDK is in use now. Only major release 8 is supported, avoid trying later releases (11,15) until support is confirmed.

Stability Improvements

The default JCS Service configuration file has knowledge of the connection pool and timeouts, but appears to be missing the “maxWait” token defined. If we are willing to wait 5-10 minutes for the JCS Service to reset its knowledge of the CCS service, we can leave the default. However for a large environment, we have found that lowering the wait times will greatly avoid the delays in transactions when there is stoppage. We have identified two (2) configuration parameters that will assist with the long term stability of the solution. Adding the “maxWait” of 60 seconds (60000 milliseconds) to the JCS configuration file for CCS service and updating the default IM Provisioning Server domain configuration parameter of “Connections/Refresh Time” to 90 seconds.

Troubleshooting and Logging

To assist with RCA efforts, we have the following recommendations. Enable verbose logging for both the JCS Service and the managed endpoint to isolate issues. You may also need to increase logging for the API Gateway or docker logs.

Below is the example to enable verbose logging.

To monitor the JCS logs, there are several tools that will assist, but we find that the latest releases of Notepad++ allow for “tailing” the active JCS logs.

Example of verbose logs for Active Directory via the CCS’s ADS and JCS logs.

Important Logging Note: Enable the new IM r14.3cp2 feature to auto rotate your CCS ADS log. Avoid stop/start of the CCS Service yourself, that may interrupt the JCS behavior to the CCS Service (error communicating to localhost:20402 will display in JCS logs). New file(s): Connector Server\ccs\data\ADS\<Endpoint_Name>.logconfig

Ref: https://techdocs.broadcom.com/us/en/symantec-security-software/identity-security/identity-management-and-governance-connectors/1-0/connectors/microsoft-connectors/microsoft-active-directory-exchange-and-skpye-for-business(lync)/active-directory-connector-capabilities/Active-Directory-Connector-Log-Rotation.html

CCS OS Environmental Variables

Spread throughout the documentation for the CA/Symantec IAM/IAG connector tier, is the use of MS Windows OS environmental variables for the CCS Service. The majority are used to manage behavior to Active Directory and/or MS Exchange. Please search the document for the latest updates. These may be set in MS Window OS via the System Environmental Variable section or via the command line with “setx”. https://techdocs.broadcom.com/us/en/symantec-security-software/identity-security/identity-management-and-governance-connectors/1-0/search.html?q=Environment%20Variable&page=1

Example of setting MS Windows OS Environmental variables with “setx” and description of the value of each variable for Active Directory/MS Exchange

1[High Value. Will force AGENTLESS connection to Exchange 2010 & UP]
 setx ADS_AGENTLESS_MODE 1 /m
2[High Value. Default value = 2, Kerberos authentication for Exchange Powershell API]
 setx ADS_AGENTLESS_AUTHMETHOD 2 /m 
3[High Value. Default value = 3. Increase to 100 and ALSO have Exchange Admin create a new quota for the service account used to create mailboxes. Default Exchange Powershell Quota is 18. New-ThrottlingPolicy MaxPowershell -PowerShellMaxConcurrency 100 AND Set-Mailbox ServiceAccountID -ThrottlingPolicy MaxPowershell ]
 setx ADS_AGENTLESS_MAXCONN 100 /m 
4[Monitor. Default value = 1. Error level ONLY, increase to level 3 for debugging powershell logging to MS Exchange]
 setx ADS_AGENTLESS_LOGLEVEL 1 /m 
5[Medium Value. CCS service will wait 10 minutes for single account. Exchange Powershell Mailbox Quota of 18 and BLC with 100’s of users.]
 setx ADS_CONFIRM_MAILBOX 600 /m 
6[Low Value. Mask the AD Failover List in the IM Prov Manager UI]
 setx ADS_DISABLE_DCSTATUS 1 /m 
7[Low Value. Mask the viewing the default AD Primary Group in the IM Prov Manager UI]
 setx ADS_DISABLE_PRIMARYGROUPNAME 1 /m 
8[High Value. Send the DC hostname to the Exchange server to query first instead of Exchange relying on its current pool]
 setx ADS_E2K_SEND_DC 1 /m 
9[High Value. Requires service account can view all alternatives DC. May limit failover DC via properties file.]
 setx ADS_FAILOVER 1 /m 
10[Medium Value. Performance if Terminal Services attribute are NOT being managed, e.g. changed in Account Templates or PX rules.]
 setx ADS_WTS_TIMEOUT -1 /m
11[Set “ADS_OPERATION_TIMEOUT” to -1 to disable the client side timeout functionality in the Environment Variable, otherwise 60]
 setx ADS_OPERATION_TIMEOUT 60 /m
12[The failover retry interval is the time that the Active Directory connector waits before checking the stopped server. The default retry interval is 15 minutes]
 setx ADS_RETRY   15 /m
13[To allow groups in unmanaged domains to be a part of synchronization, Defines whether the synchronization operation searches the global catalog. The value of x can be 0 or 1: 0: (Default) The synchronization operation queries the local catalog only. It does not consider universal groups in unmanaged domains. When x is set to 0, the y value has no effect. 1: Synchronization queries the global catalog to allow it to consider groups in unmanaged domains. y Defines which domains the synchronization operation considers. 0: Synchronization considers groups in both managed and unmanaged domains. 1: Synchronization considers groups in managed domains only.]
 setx ADS_MANAGE_GROUPS 01 /m
14[Monitor. Seems only valuable for debugging. Has performance hit but may assist for CCS debugging to ActiveDirectory.]
 setx ADS_FORCELOG 1 /m 
15[Low Value. The IMPS service can page with lower limits. Impact if this value is > what AD default page limit size is. ]
 setx ADS_SIZELIMIT 50000 /m 

Reinstalling the JCS Service from the Virtual Appliance

If you are using the CA/Symantec Identity Suite virtual appliance, consider after patching the solutions on the virtual appliance, to re-installing the remote JCS Services. This will avoid any confusion on which patches are deployed on the remote JCS servers. Any patches on the virtual appliance will be incorporated into the new installer. We prefer to use the JCS only on the MS Windows OS, as it can service both JCS type managed endpoints & CCS type managed endpoints together. We also have full access to adjust the behavior of these service on MS Windows OS rather than the limited access provided by the virtual appliance for the JCS service.

Hopefully some of these notes will help you avoid any challenges with the connector tier and if you do, how to isolate the issues.

Advance Review: Review how CCS Service receives IMPS data via the JCS Tier.

The below example will load the DLL for the CCS Service (pass-through), then the information to bind to the ADS endpoint will be sent, then two (2) modify operations will be executed. This process emulates the IMPS behavior with the JCS and CCS. The bind information for the ADS endpoint that is stored in the CA Provisioning User Store, and queried/decrypted by the IMPS to send to the JCS as needed. Only after this information is stored in the CCS service, will the solution be able to explore or manage the ADS endpoint accounts.

su - dsa
export HISTIGNORE=' *'
echo -n Password01 > .imps.pwd; chmod 600 .imps.pwd
HOST=192.168.242.154;LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxmodify -c -H ldaps://$HOST:20411 -D "cn=root,dc=etasa" -y .imps.pwd << EOF
dn: eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=etasa
changetype: add
objectClass: eTADSNamespace
eTAgentPluginDLL: W2KNamespace.dll
eTNamespaceName: ActiveDirectory

dn: eTADSDirectoryName=dc2012.exchange2012.lab,eTNamespaceName=ActiveDirectory,dc=im,dc=etasa
changetype: add
eTADSobjectCategory: CN=Domain-DNS,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange2012,DC=lab
eTADSdomainFunctionality: 6
eTADSUseSSL: 1
eTLogWindowsEventSeverity: FE
eTAccountResumable: 1
eTADSnetBIOS: EXCHANGE2012
eTLogStdoutSeverity: FE
eTLog: 1
eTLogUnicenterSeverity: FE
eTADSlockoutDuration: -18000000000
objectclass: eTADSDirectory
eTLogETSeverity: FE
eTADSmsExchSystemObjectsObjectVersion: 1
eTADSsettings: 2
eTADSconfig: ExpirePwd=0: HomeDirInheritPermission=0
eTLogDestination: F
eTADSUserContainer: CN=BuiltIn;CN=Users
eTADSbackupDirs: 000;Default-First-Site-Name.Sites.Configuration.exchange2012.lab;dc2012.exchange2012.lab;0
eTADSuseFailover: 0
eTLogAuditSeverity: FE
eTADS-DefaultContext: exchange2012.lab
eTADSforestFunctionality: 6
eTADSAuthDN: Administrator
eTADSlyncMaxConnection: 5
eTADSAuthPWD: Password01!
eTLogFileSeverity: FIESW
eTADSprimaryServer: dc2012.exchange2012.lab
eTADScontainers: CN=Domain-DNS,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=exchange2012,DC=lab;exchange2012.lab;dc2012.exchange2012.lab
eTADSTimeBoundMembershipsEnabled: 0
eTADSKeepCamCaftFiles: 0
eTADSdomainControllerFunctionality: 6
eTADSexchange: 0
eTADSmsExchSchemaVersion: 1
eTADSCamCaftTimeout: 0000001800
eTADSPortNum: 636
eTADSDCDomain: DC=exchange2012,DC=lab
eTADSServerName: dc2012.exchange2012.lab
eTADSDirectoryName: dc2012.exchange2012.lab

EOF

MS Windows Firewall Rules for JCS Service

NOTE: Ensure MS Win OS F/W Port is open for 20411 on the IAMCS Server

Powershell Example:

Get-NetFirewallRule -Name jcs
New-NetFirewallRule -Name '#### IAMCS JCS TCP 20411 & 20443 #####' -DisplayName '##### IAMCS JCS TCP 20411 & 20443 #####' -Enabled True -Direction Inbound -Protocol TCP -Action Allow -LocalPort 20411,20443

Win Cmd Lin Example:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="##### IAMCS JCS TCP 20411 & 20433 #####" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport="20411,20443"

Install MS .Net Framework 3.5 (Required for the CCS Service & ECS – enterprise common services library framework)

DISM /Online /Enable-Feature /All /FeatureName:NetFx3

Re-install or Uninstall issues

If unable to re-install, please delete the CA install/registry tracking file under C:\Windows folder, C:\Windows\vpd.properties , then reboot before attempting a re-install of the JCS/CCS component.

ECS Services

These five (5) ECS Services are typically not active used & may be changed to manual for minor CPU relief. ECS features are retained for supporting libraries.

Load Balancing Provisioning Tier

The prior releases of CA Identity Manager / Identity Suite have a bottleneck with the provisioning tier.

The top tier of the solution stack, Identity Manager Environment (IME/J2EE Application), may communicate to multiple Provisioning Servers (IMPS), but this configuration only has value for fail-over high availability.

This default deployment means we will have a “many-to-one” challenge, multiple IMEs experiencing a bottleneck with provisioning communication to a single IMPS server.

If this IMPS server is busy, then transactions for one or more IMEs are paused or may timeout. Unfortunately, the IME (J2EE) error messages or delays are not clear that this is a provisioning bottleneck challenge. Clients may attempt to resolve this challenge by increasing the number of IME and IMPS servers but will still be impacted by the provisioning bottleneck.

Two (2) prior methods used to overcome this bottleneck challenge were:


a) Pseudo hostname(s) entries, on the J2EE servers, for the Provisioning Tier, then rotate the order pseudo hostname(s) on the local J2EE host file to have their IP addresses access other IMPS. This methodology would give us a 1:1 configuration where one (1) IME is now locked to one (1) IMPS (by the pseudo hostname/IP address). This method is not perfect but ensures that all IMPS servers will be utilized if the number of IMPS servers equals IME (J2EE) servers. Noteworthy, this method is used by the CA identity Suite virtual appliance, where the pseudo hostname(s) are ca-prov-srv-01, ca-prov-srv-02, ca-prov-03, etc. (see image above)

<Connection
  host="ca-prov-srv-primary" port="20390"
  failover="ca-prov-srv-01:20390,ca-prov-srv-02:20390,ca-prov-srv-03:20390,ca-prov-srv-04:20390“
/>

b) A Router placed in-front of the IMPS (TCP 20389/20390), that contains “stickiness” to ensure that when round-robin model is used, that the same IMPS server is used for the IME that submitted a transaction, to avoid any concerns/challenges of possible”RACE” conditions, where a modify operations may occur before the create operation.


The “RACE” challenge is a concern of both of the methods above, but this risk is low, and can be managed with additional business rules that include pre-conditional checks, e.g., does the account exist before any modifications.

Ref: RACE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_condition

Example of one type of RACE condition that may be seen.

Ref: PX Rule Engine: https://techdocs.broadcom.com/content/broadcom/techdocs/us/en/ca-enterprise-software/layer7-identity-and-access-management/identity-manager/14-3/Release-Notes/Cumulative-Patches/Latest-Cumulative-Patch-14_3-CP2.html

New CP2 Loading Balance Feature – No more bottleneck.

Identity Manager can now use round-robin load balancing support, without any restrictions on either type of provisioning operations or existing runtime limitations. This load balancing approach distributes client requests across a group of Provisioning servers.

https://techdocs.broadcom.com/content/broadcom/techdocs/us/en/ca-enterprise-software/layer7-identity-and-access-management/identity-manager/14-3/Release-Notes/release-features-and-enhancement/Identity-Manager-14_3-CP2.html#concept.dita_b51ab03e-6e77-49be-8235-e50ee477247a_LoadBalancing

This feature is managed in the IME tier, and will also address any RACE conditions/concerns.


No configuration changes are required on the IMPS tier. After updates of CP2, we can now use the IME Management console to export the directory.xml for the IMPS servers and update the XML tag for <Connection. This configuration may also be deployed to the Virtual Appliances.

<Connection   
  host="ca-prov-srv-primary" port="20390”   
  loadbalance="ca-prov-srv-02:20390,ca-prov-srv-03:20390,ca-prov-srv-04:20390“   
  failover="ca-prov-srv-01:20390,ca-prov-srv-02:20390,ca-prov-srv-03:20390,ca-prov-srv-04:20390“ 
/>

View of CP2 to download.

https://techdocs.broadcom.com/content/broadcom/techdocs/us/en/ca-enterprise-software/layer7-identity-and-access-management/identity-manager/14-3/Release-Notes/Cumulative-Patches/Latest-Cumulative-Patch-14_3-CP2.html

Before applying this patch, we recommend collecting your metrics for feed operations that include multiple create operations, and modify operations to minimal of 1000 IDS, Monitor the IMPS etatrans logs as well; and the JCS/CCS logs. After the patch, run the same feed operations to determine the value of provisioning load-balance feature; and any provisioning delays that have been addressed. You may wish to increase the # of JCS/CCS servers (MS Windows) to speed up provisioning to Active Directory and other endpoints.

Disaster Recovery Scenarios for Directories

Restore processes may be done with snapshots-in-time for both databases and directories. We wished to provide clarity of the restoration steps after a snapshot-in-time is utilized for a directory. The methodology outlined below has the following goals: a) allow sites to prepare before they need the restoration steps, b) provide a training module to exercise samples included in a vendor solution.

In this scenario, we focused on the CA/Broadcom/Symantec Directory solution. The CA Directory provides several tools to automate online backup snapshots, but these processes stop at copies of the binary data files.

Additionally, we desired to walk-through the provided DAR (Disaster and Recovery) scenarios and determine what needed to be updated to reflect newer features; and how we may validate that we did accomplish a full restoration.

Finally, to assist with the decision tree model, where we need to triage and determine if a full restore is required, or may we select partial restoration via extracts and imports of selected data.

Cluster Out-of-Sync Scenario

Awareness

The first indicator that a userstore (CA Directory DATA DSA) is out-of-sync will be the CA Directory logs themselves, e.g. alarm or trace logs.

Another indication will be inconsistent query results for a user object that returns different results when using a front-end router to the DATA DSAs.

After awareness of the issue, the team will exercise a triage process to determine the extent of the out-of-sync data. For a quick check, one may execute LDAP queries direct to the TCP port of each DATA DSA on each host, and examine the results directory or even the total number of entries, e.g. dxTotalEntryCount.

The returned count value will help determine if the number of entries for each DATA DSA on the peer MW hosts are out-of-sync for ADD or DEL operations. The challenge/GAP with this method is it will not show any delta due to modify operations on the user objects themselves, e.g. address field changed.

Example of LDAP queries (dxsearch/ldapsearch) to CA Directory DATA DSA for the CA Identity Management solution (4 DATA DSA and 1 ROUTER DSA)

su - dsa    OR [ sudo -iu dsa ]
echo -n Password01 > .impd.pwd ; chmod 600 .impd.pwd

# NOTIFY BRANCH (TCP 20404) 
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20404 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'dc=notify,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount
dn: dc=notify,dc=etadb

# INC BRANCH (TCP 20398)
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20398 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'eTInclusionContainerName=Inclusions,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount

# CO BRANCH (TCP 20396)
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20396 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount

# MAIN BRANCH (TCP 20394)
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20394 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'dc=im,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount

# ALL BRANCHES - Router Port (TCP 20391)
LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never  dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20391 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s sub -b 'dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' dxTotalEntryCount

# Scroll to see entire line 

A better process to identify the delta(s) will be automating the daily backup process, to build out LDIF files for each peer MW DATA DSA and then performing a delta process between the LDIF files. We will walk through this more involve step later in this blog entry.

Recovery Processes

The below link has examples from CA/Broadcom/Symantec with recovery notes of CA Directory DATA DSA that are out-of-sync due to extended downtime or outage window.

The below image pulled from the document (page 9.) shows CA Directory r12.x using the latest recovery processes of “multiwrite-DISP” (MW-DISP) mode.

This recovery process of MW-DISP is default for the CA Identity Management DATA DSAs via the install wizard tools, when they create the IMPD DATA DSAs.

https://knowledge.broadcom.com/external/article?articleId=54088

The above document is dated, and still mentions additional file structures that have been retired, e.g. oc/zoc, at,zat.

An enhancement request has been submitted for both of these requests:

https://community.broadcom.com/participate/ideation-home/viewidea?IdeationKey=c71a304b-a689-4894-ac1c-786c9a2b2d0d

The modified version we have started for CA Directory r14.x adds some clarity to the <dsaname>.dx files; and which steps may be adjusted to support the split data structure for the four (4) IMPD DATA DSAs.

The same time flow diagram was used. Extra notes were added for clarity, and if possible, examples of commands that will be used to assist with direct automation of each step (or maybe pasted in an SSH session window, as the dsa service ID).

Step 1, implicit in the identification/triage process, is to determine what userstore data is out-of-sync and how large a delta do we have. If the DSA service has been shut down (either deliberately or via a startup issue), if the shutdown delay is more than a few days, then the CA Directory process will check the date stamp in the <dsaname>.dp file and the transaction in the <dsaname>.tx file; if the dates are too large CA Directory will refuse to start the DATA DSA and issue a warning message.

Step 2, we will leverage the dxdisp <dsaname> command to generate a new time-stamp file <dsaname>.dx, that will be used to prevent unnecessary sync operations with any data older than the date stamp in this file. 

This command should be issued for every DATA DSA on the same host—Especially true for split DATA DSAs, e.g. IMPD (CA Identity Manager’s Provisioning Directories). In our example below, to assist with this step, we use a combination of commands with a while-loop to issue the dxdisp command.

This command can be executed regardless if the DSA is running or shutdown. If an existing <dsaname>.dx file exists, any additional execution of dxdisp will add updated time-stamps to this file.  

Note: The <dsaname>.dx file will be removed upon restart of the DATA DSA.

STEP 2: ISSUE DXDISP COMMAND [ Create time-stamp file for re-sync use ] ON ALL IMPD SERVERS.

su - dsa OR [ sudo -iu dsa ]
bash
dxserver status | grep -v router | awk '{print $1}' | while IFS='' read -r LINE || [ -n "$LINE" ] ; do dxdisp "$LINE" ;done ; echo ; find $DXHOME -name "*.dx" -exec ls -larth {} \;

# Scroll to see entire line 

Step 3 will then ask for an updated online backup to be executed. 

In earlier release of CA Directory, this required a telnet/ssh connection to the dxconsole of each DATA DSA. Or using the DSA configuration files to contain a dump dxgrid-db; command that would be executed with dxserver init all command. 

In newer releases of CA Directory, we can leverage the dxserver onlinebackup <dsaname> process. 

This step can be a challenge to dump all DATA DSAs at the same time, using manual procedures. 

Fortunately, we can automate this with a single bash shell process; and as an enhancement, we can also generate the LDIF extracts of each DATA DSA for later delta compare operations.

Note: The DATA DSA must be running (started) for the onlinebackup process to function correctly. If unsure, issue a dxserver status or dxserver start all prior. 

Retain the LDIF files from the “BAD” DATA DSA Servers for analysis.

STEP 3a-3c: ON ALL IMPD DATA DSA SERVERS - ISSUE ONLINE BACKUP PROCESS
su - dsa OR [ sudo -iu dsa ]
bash

dxserver status | grep started | grep -v router | awk '{print $1}' | while IFS='' read -r LINE || [ -n "$LINE" ] ; do dxserver onlinebackup "$LINE" ; sleep 10; dxdumpdb -w -z -f /tmp/`date '+%Y%m%d_%H%M%S_%s'`_$LINE.ldif $LINE ;done ; echo ; find $DXHOME -name "*.zdb" -exec ls -larth {} \; ; echo ; ls -larth --time-style=full-iso /tmp/*.ldif | grep  `date '+%Y-%m-%d'`

# Scroll to see entire line 

Step 4a Walks through the possible copy operations from “GOOD” to the “BAD” DATA DSA host, for the <dsaname>.zdb files. The IMPD DATA DSA will require that three (3) of four (4) zdb files are copied, to ensure no impact to referential integrity between the DATA DSA.

The preferred model to copy data from one remote host to another is via the compressed rsync process over SSH, as this is a rapid process for the CA Directory db / zdb files.

https://anapartner.com/2020/05/03/wan-latency-rsync-versus-scp/

Below are the code blocks that demonstrate examples how to copy data from one DSA server to another DSA server.

# RSYNC METHOD
sudo -iu dsa

time rsync --progress -e 'ssh -ax' -avz --exclude "User*" --exclude "*.dp" --exclude "*.tx" dsa@192.168.242.135:./data/ $DXHOME/data

# Scroll to see entire line 
# SCP METHOD   
sudo -iu dsa

scp   REMOTE_ID@$HOST:./data/<folder_impd_data_dsa_name>/*.zdb   /tmp/dsa_data
/usr/bin/mv  /tmp/dsa_data/<incorrect_dsaname>.zdb   $DXHOME/data/<folder_impd_data_dsa_name>/<correct_dsaname>.db

# Scroll to see entire line 

Step 4b Walk through the final steps before restarting the “BAD” DATA DSA.

The ONLY files that should be in the data folders are <dsaname>.db (binary data file) and <dsaname>.dx (ASCII time-stamp file). Ensure that the copied <prior-hostname-dsaname>.zdb file has been renamed to the correct hostname & extension for <dsaname>.db

Remove the prior <dsaname>.dp (ASCII time-stamp file) { the DATA DSA will auto replace this file with the *.dx file contents } and the <dsaname>.tx (binary data transaction file).

Step 5a Startup the DATA DSA with the command

dxserver start all

If there is any issue with a DATA or ROUTER DSA not starting, then issue the same command with the debug switch (-d)

dxserver -d start <dsaname>

Use the output from the above debug process to address any a) syntax challenges, or b) older PID/LCK files ($DXHOME/pid)

Step 5b Finally, use dxsearch/ldapsearch to query a unit-test of authentication with the primary service ID. Use other unit/use-case tests as needed to confirm data is now synced.

bash
echo -n Password01 > .impd.pwd ; chmod 600 .impd.pwd

LDAPTLS_REQCERT=never dxsearch -LLL -H ldaps://`hostname`:20394 -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -s base -b 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' '(objectClass=*)' | perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g'

# Scroll to see entire line 

LDIF Recovery Processes

The steps above are for recovery via a 100% replacement method, where the assumption is that the “bad” DSA server does NOT have any data worth keeping or wish to be reviewed.

We wish to clarify a process/methodology, where the “peer” Multi-write DSA may be out-of-sync. Still, we are not sure “which” is truly the “good DSA” to select, or perhaps we wished to merge data from multiple DSA before we declare one to be the “good DSA” (with regards to the completeness of data).

Using CA Directory commands, we can join them together to automate snapshots and exports to LDIF files. These LDIF files can then be compared against their peers MW DATA DSA exports or even to themselves at different snapshot export times. As long as we have the LDIF exports, we can recover from any DAR scenario.

Example of using CA Directory dxserver and dxdumpdb commands (STEP 3) with the ldifdelta and dxmodify commands.

The output from ldifdelta may be imported to any remote peer MW DATA DSA server to sync via dxmodify to that hostname, to force a sync for the few objects that may be out-of-sync, e.g. Password Hashes or other.

dxserver status | grep started | grep -v router | awk '{print $1}' | while IFS='' read -r LINE || [ -n "$LINE" ] ; do dxserver onlinebackup "$LINE" ; sleep 10; dxdumpdb -z -f /tmp/`date '+%Y%m%d_%H%M%S_%s'`_$LINE.ldif $LINE ;done ; echo ; find $DXHOME -name "*.zdb" -exec ls -larth {} \; ; echo ; ls -larth --time-style=full-iso /tmp/*.ldif | grep  `date '+%Y-%m-%d'`

ldifdelta -x -S ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co  /tmp/20200819_122820_1597858100_ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.ldif   /tmp/20200819_123108_1597858268_ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.ldif  |  perl -p00e 's/\r?\n //g'  >   /tmp/delta_file_ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.ldif   ; cat /tmp/delta_file_ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.ldif

echo -n Password01 > .impd.pwd ; chmod 600 .impd.pwd
dxmodify -v -c -h`hostname` -p 20391  -D 'eTDSAContainerName=DSAs,eTNamespaceName=CommonObjects,dc=etadb' -y .impd.pwd -f /tmp/delta_file_ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.ldif

# Scroll to see entire line 

The below images demonstrate a delta that exists between two (2) time snapshots. The CA Directory tool, ldifdelta, can identify and extract the modified entry to the user object.

The following examples will show how to re-import this delta using dxmodify command to the DATA DSA with no other modifications required to the input LDIF file.

In the testing example below, before any update to an object, let’s capture a snapshot-in-time and the LDIF files for each DATA DSA.

Lets make an update to a user object using any tool we wish, or command line process like ldapmodify.

Next, lets capture a new snapshot-in-time after the update, so we will be able to utilize the ldifdelta tool.

We can use the ldifdelta tool to create the delta LDIF input file. After we review this file, and accept the changes, we can then submit this LDIF file to the remote peer MW DATA DSA that are out-of-sync.

Hope this has value to you and any challenges you may have with your environment.

WAN Latency: Rsync versus SCP

We were curious about what methods we can use to manage large files that must be copied between sites with WAN-type latency and also restrict ourselves to processes available on the CA Identity Suite virtual appliance / Symantec IGA solution.

Leveraging VMware Workstation’s ability to introduce network latency between images, allows for a validation of a global password reset solution.

If we experience deployment challenges with native copy operations, we need to ensure we have alternatives to address any out-of-sync data.

The embedded CA Directory maintains the data tier in separate binary files, using a software router to join the data tier into a virtual directory. This allows for scalability and growth to accommodate the largest of sites.

We focused on the provisioning directory (IMPD) as our likely candidate for re-syncing.

Test Conditions:

  1. To ensure the data was being securely copied, we kept the requirement for SSH sessions between two (2) different nodes of a cluster.
  2. We introduce latency with VMware Workstation NIC for one of the nodes.

3. The four (4) IMPD Data DSAs were resized to 2500 MB each (a similar size we have seen in production at many sites).

4. We removed data and the folder structure from the receiving node to avoid any checksum restart processes from gaining an unfair advantage.

5. If the process allowed for exclusions, we did take advantage of this feature.

6. The feature/process/commands must be available on the vApp to the ‘config’ or ‘dsa’ userIDs.

7. The reference host/node that is being pulled, has the CA Directory Data DSAs offline (dxserver stop all) to prevent ongoing changes to the files during the copy operation.

Observations:

SCP without Compression: Unable to exclude other files (*.tx,*.dp, UserStore) – This process took over 12 minutes to copy 10,250 MB of data

SCP with Compression: Unable to exclude other files (*.tx,*.dp, UserStore) – This process still took over 12 minutes to copy 10,250 MB of data

Rsync without compression: This process can exclude files/folders and has built-in checksum features (to allow a restart of a file if the connection is broken) and works over SSH as well. If the folder was not deleted prior, then this process would give artificial high-speed results. This process was able to exclude the UserStore DSA files and the transaction files (*.dp & *.tx) that are not required to be copied for use on a remote server. Only 10,000 MB (4 x 2500 MB) was copied instead of an extra 250 MB.

Rsync with compression: This process can exclude files/folders and has built-in checksum features (to allow a restart of a file if the connection is broken) and works over SSH as well. This process was the winner, and; extremely amazing performance over the other processes.

Total Time: 1 min 10 seconds for 10,000 MB of data over a WAN latency of 70 ms (140 ms R/T)

Now that we have found our winner, we need to do a few post steps to use the copied files. CA Directory, to maintain uniqueness between peer members of the multi-write (MW) group, have a unique name for the data folder and the data file. On the CA Identity Suite / Symantec IGA Virtual Appliance, pseudo nomenclature is used with two (2) digits.

The next step is to rename the folder and the files. Since the vApp is locked down for installing other tools that may be available for rename operations, we utilized the find and mv command with a regular xpression process to assist with these two (2) steps.

Complete Process Summarized with Validation

The below process was written within the default shell of ‘dsa’ userID ‘csh’. If the shell is changed to ‘bash’; update accordingly.

The below process also utilized a SSH RSA private/public key process that was previously generated for the ‘dsa’ user ID. If you are using the vApp, change the userID to config; and su – dsa to complete the necessary steps. You may need to add a copy operation between dsa & config userIDs.

Summary of using rsync with find/mv to rename copied IMPD *.db files/folders
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ dxserver status
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-main started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-notify started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-co started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-inc started
ca-prov-srv-03-imps-router started
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ dxserver stop all > & /dev/null
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ du -hs
9.4G    .
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ eval `ssh-agent` && ssh-add
Agent pid 5395
Enter passphrase for /opt/CA/Directory/dxserver/.ssh/id_rsa:
Identity added: /opt/CA/Directory/dxserver/.ssh/id_rsa (/opt/CA/Directory/dxserver/.ssh/id_rsa)
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ rm -rf *
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ du -hs
4.0K    .
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ time rsync --progress -e 'ssh -ax' -avz --exclude "User*" --exclude "*.dp" --exclude "*.tx" dsa@192.168.242.135:./data/ $DXHOME/data
FIPS mode initialized
receiving incremental file list
./
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co/
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co/ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co.db
  2500000000 100%  143.33MB/s    0:00:16 (xfer#1, to-check=3/9)
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-inc/
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-inc/ca-prov-srv-01-impd-inc.db
  2500000000 100%  153.50MB/s    0:00:15 (xfer#2, to-check=2/9)
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-main/
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-main/ca-prov-srv-01-impd-main.db
  2500000000 100%  132.17MB/s    0:00:18 (xfer#3, to-check=1/9)
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-notify/
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-notify/ca-prov-srv-01-impd-notify.db
  2500000000 100%  130.91MB/s    0:00:18 (xfer#4, to-check=0/9)

sent 137 bytes  received 9810722 bytes  139161.12 bytes/sec
total size is 10000000000  speedup is 1019.28
27.237u 5.696s 1:09.43 47.4%    0+0k 128+19531264io 2pf+0w
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ ls
ca-prov-srv-01-impd-co  ca-prov-srv-01-impd-inc  ca-prov-srv-01-impd-main  ca-prov-srv-01-impd-notify
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ find $DXHOME/data/ -mindepth 1 -type d -exec bash -c 'mv  $0 ${0/01/03}' {} \; > & /dev/null
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ ls
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-co  ca-prov-srv-03-impd-inc  ca-prov-srv-03-impd-main  ca-prov-srv-03-impd-notify
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ find $DXHOME/data -depth -name '*.db' -exec bash -c 'mv  $0 ${0/01/03}' {} \; > & /dev/null
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ dxserver start all
Starting all dxservers
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-main starting
..
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-main started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-notify starting
..
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-notify started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-co starting
..
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-co started
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-inc starting
..
ca-prov-srv-03-impd-inc started
ca-prov-srv-03-imps-router starting
..
ca-prov-srv-03-imps-router started
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$ du -hs
9.4G    .
[dsa@pwdha03 ~/data]$


Note: An enhancement has been open to request that the ‘dsa’ userID is able to use remote SSH processes to address any challenges if the Data IMPD DSAs need to be copied or retained for backup processes.

https://community.broadcom.com/participate/ideation-home/viewidea?IdeationKey=7c795c51-d028-4db8-adb1-c9df2dc48bff

Example for vApp Patches:

Note: There is no major different in speed if the files being copied are already compressed. The below image shows that initial copy is at the rate of the network w/ latency. The value gain from using rsync is still the checksum feature that allow auto-restart where it left off.

vApp Patch process refined to a few lines (to three nodes of a cluster deployment)

# PATCHES
# On Local vApp [as config userID]
mkdir -p patches  && cd patches
curl -L -O ftp://ftp.ca.com/pub/CAIdentitySuiteVA/cumulative-patches/14.3.0/CP-VA-140300-0002.tar.gpg
curl -L -O ftp://ftp.ca.com/pub/CAIdentitySuiteVA/cumulative-patches/14.3.0/CP-IMV-140300-0001.tgz.gpg
screen    [will open a new bash shell ]
patch_vapp CP-VA-140300-0002.tar.gpg           [Patch VA prior to any solution patch]
patch_vapp CP-IMV-140300-0001.tgz.gpg
exit          [exit screen]
cd ..
# Push from one host to another via scp
IP=192.168.242.136;scp -r patches  config@$IP:
IP=192.168.242.137;scp -r patches  config@$IP:
# Push from one host to another via rsync over ssh          [Minor gain for compressed files]
IP=192.168.242.136;rsync --progress -e 'ssh -ax' -avz $HOME/patches config@$IP:
IP=192.168.242.137;rsync --progress -e 'ssh -ax' -avz $HOME/patches config@$IP:
# Pull from one host to another via rsync over ssh          [Minor gain for compressed files]
IP=192.168.242.135;rsync --progress -e 'ssh -ax' -avz config@$IP:./patches $HOME

# View the files were patched
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh -tt config@$IP "ls -lart patches"
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh -tt config@$IP "ls -lart patches"

# On Remote vApp Node #2
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh $IP
cd patches
screen    [will open a new bash shell ]
patch_vapp CP-VA-140300-0002.tar.gpg
patch_vapp CP-IMV-140300-0001.tgz.gpg
exit          [exit screen]
exit          [exit to original host]

# On Remote vApp Node #3
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh $IP
cd patches
screen    [will open a new bash shell ]
patch_vapp CP-VA-140300-0002.tar.gpg
patch_vapp CP-IMV-140300-0001.tgz.gpg
exit          [exit screen]
exit          [exit to original host]

View of rotating the SSH RSA key for CONFIG User ID

# CONFIG - On local vApp host
ls -lart .ssh     [view any prior files]
echo y | ssh-keygen -b 4096 -N Password01 -C $USER -f $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
IP=192.168.242.135;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
cp -r -p .ssh/id_rsa.pub .ssh/authorized_keys
rm -rf /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar
tar -cvf /tmp/`/bin/date -u +%s`.$USER.ssh-keys.tar .ssh
ls -lart /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar
eval `ssh-agent` && ssh-add           [Enter Password for SSH RSA Private Key]
IP=192.168.242.136;scp `ls /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar`  config@$IP:
IP=192.168.242.137;scp `ls /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar`  config@$IP:
USER=config;ssh -tt $USER@192.168.242.136 "tar -xvf *.$USER.ssh-keys.tar"
USER=config;ssh -tt $USER@192.168.242.137 "tar -xvf *.$USER.ssh-keys.tar"
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh $IP `/bin/date -u +%s`
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh $IP `/bin/date -u +%s`
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh -vv $IP              [Use -vv to troubleshoot ssh process]
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh -vv $IP 				[Use -vv to troubleshoot ssh process]

Avoid locking a userID in a Virtual Appliance

The below post describes enabling the .ssh private key/public key process for the provided service IDs to avoid dependency on a password that may be forgotten, and also how to leverage the service IDs to address potential CA Directory data sync challenges that may occur when there are WAN network latency challenges between remote cluster nodes.

Background:

The CA/Broadcom/Symantec Identity Suite (IGA) solution provides for a software virtual appliance. This software appliance is available on Amazon AWS as a pre-built AMI image that allows for rapid deployment.

The software appliance is also offered as an OVA file for Vmware ESXi/Workstation deployment.

Challenge:

If the primary service ID is locked or password is allowed to expire, then the administrator will likely have only two (2) options:

1) Request assistance from the Vendor (for a supported process to reset the service ID – likely with a 2nd service ID “recoverip”)

2) Boot from an ISO image (if allowed) to mount the vApp as a data drive and update the primary service ID.

Proposal:

Add a standardized SSH RSA private/pubic key to the primary service ID, if it does not exist. If it exists, validate able to authentication and copy files between cluster nodes with the existing .SSH files. Rotate these files per internal security policies, e.g. 1/year.

The focus for this entry is on the CA ‘config’ and ‘ec2-user’ service IDs.

An enhancement request has been added, to have the ‘dsa’ userID added to the file’/etc/ssh/ssh_allowed_users’ to allow for the same .ssh RSA process to address challenges during deployments where the CA Directory Data DSA did not fully copy from one node to another node.

https://community.broadcom.com/participate/ideation-home/viewidea?IdeationKey=7c795c51-d028-4db8-adb1-c9df2dc48bff

AWS vApp: ‘ec2-user’

The primary service ID for remote SSH access is ‘ec2-user’ for the Amazon AWS is already deployed with a .ssh RSA private/public key. This is a requirement for AWS deployments and has been enabled to use this process.

This feature allows for access to be via the private key from a remote SSH session using Putty/MobaXterm or similar tools. Another feature may be leveraged by updating the ‘ec2-user’ .ssh folder to allow for other nodes to be exposed with this service ID, to assist with the deployment of patch files.

As an example, enabling .ssh service between multiple cluster nodes will reduce scp process from remote workstations. Prior, if there were five (5) vApp nodes, to patch them would require uploading the patch direct to each of the five (5) nodes. With enabling .ssh service between all nodes for the ‘ec2-user’ service ID, we only need to upload patches to one (1) node, then use a scp process to push these patch file(s) from one node to another cluster node.

On-Prem vApp: ‘config’

We wish to emulate this process for on-prem vApp servers to reduce I/O for any files to be uploaded and/or shared.

This process has strong value when CA Directory *.db files are out-of-sync or during initial deployment, there may be network issues and/or WAN latency.

Below is an example to create and/or rotate the private/public SSH RSA files for the ‘config’ service ID.

An example to create and/or rotate the private/public SSH RSA files for the ‘config’ service ID.

Below is an example to push the newly created SSH RSA files to the remote host(s) of the vApp cluster. After this step, we can now use scp processes to assist with remediation efforts within scripts without a password stored as clear text.

Copy the RSA folder to your workstation, to add to your Putty/MobaXterm or similar SSH tool, to allow remote authentication using the public key.

If you have any issues, use the embedded verbose logging within the ssh client tool (-vv) to identify the root issue.

ssh -vv userid@remote_hostname

Example:

config@vapp0001 VAPP-14.1.0 (192.168.242.146):~ > eval `ssh-agent` && ssh-add
Agent pid 5717
Enter passphrase for /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa:
Identity added: /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa (/home/config/.ssh/id_rsa)
config@vapp0001 VAPP-14.1.0 (192.168.242.146):~ >
config@vapp0001 VAPP-14.1.0 (192.168.242.146):~ > ssh -vv config@192.168.242.128
OpenSSH_5.3p1, OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Applying options for *
debug2: ssh_connect: needpriv 0
debug1: Connecting to 192.168.242.128 [192.168.242.128] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/identity type -1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/identity-cert type -1
debug2: key_type_from_name: unknown key type '-----BEGIN'
debug2: key_type_from_name: unknown key type 'Proc-Type:'
debug2: key_type_from_name: unknown key type 'DEK-Info:'
debug2: key_type_from_name: unknown key type '-----END'
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_dsa type -1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_dsa-cert type -1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_ecdsa type -1
debug1: identity file /home/config/.ssh/id_ecdsa-cert type -1
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_5.3
debug1: match: OpenSSH_5.3 pat OpenSSH*
debug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.3
debug2: fd 3 setting O_NONBLOCK
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-dss-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-rsa-cert-v00@openssh.com,ssh-dss-cert-v00@openssh.com,ssh-rsa,ssh-dss
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: hmac-sha1,umac-64@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-ripemd160,hmac-ripemd160@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: hmac-sha1,umac-64@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-ripemd160,hmac-ripemd160@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit:
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit:
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: first_kex_follows 0
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: reserved 0
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: ssh-rsa,ssh-dss
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,rijndael-cbc@lysator.liu.se
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: hmac-sha1,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: hmac-sha1,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: none
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: none
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit:
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit:
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: first_kex_follows 0
debug2: kex_parse_kexinit: reserved 0
debug2: mac_setup: found hmac-sha1
debug1: kex: server->client aes128-ctr hmac-sha1 none
debug2: mac_setup: found hmac-sha1
debug1: kex: client->server aes128-ctr hmac-sha1 none
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REQUEST(1024<2048<8192) sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_GROUP
debug2: dh_gen_key: priv key bits set: 141/320
debug2: bits set: 1027/2048
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_INIT sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REPLY
debug1: Host '192.168.242.128' is known and matches the RSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /home/config/.ssh/known_hosts:2
debug2: bits set: 991/2048
debug1: ssh_rsa_verify: signature correct
debug2: kex_derive_keys
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 1
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 0
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_REQUEST sent
debug2: service_accept: ssh-userauth
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug2: key: /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa (0x5648110d2a00)
debug2: key: /home/config/.ssh/identity ((nil))
debug2: key: /home/config/.ssh/id_dsa ((nil))
debug2: key: /home/config/.ssh/id_ecdsa ((nil))
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,password
debug1: Next authentication method: gssapi-keyex
debug1: No valid Key exchange context
debug2: we did not send a packet, disable method
debug1: Next authentication method: gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Unspecified GSS failure.  Minor code may provide more information
Improper format of Kerberos configuration file

debug1: Unspecified GSS failure.  Minor code may provide more information
Improper format of Kerberos configuration file

debug2: we did not send a packet, disable method
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: /home/config/.ssh/id_rsa
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 533
debug2: input_userauth_pk_ok: SHA1 fp 39:06:95:0d:13:4b:9a:29:0b:28:b6:bd:3d:b0:03:e8:3c:ad:50:6f
debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).
debug1: channel 0: new [client-session]
debug2: channel 0: send open
debug1: Requesting no-more-sessions@openssh.com
debug1: Entering interactive session.
debug2: callback start
debug2: client_session2_setup: id 0
debug2: channel 0: request pty-req confirm 1
debug1: Sending environment.
debug1: Sending env LANG = en_US.UTF-8
debug2: channel 0: request env confirm 0
debug2: channel 0: request shell confirm 1
debug2: fd 3 setting TCP_NODELAY
debug2: callback done
debug2: channel 0: open confirm rwindow 0 rmax 32768
debug2: channel_input_status_confirm: type 99 id 0
debug2: PTY allocation request accepted on channel 0
debug2: channel 0: rcvd adjust 2097152
debug2: channel_input_status_confirm: type 99 id 0
debug2: shell request accepted on channel 0
Last login: Thu Apr 30 20:21:48 2020 from 192.168.242.146

CA Identity Suite Virtual Appliance version 14.3.0 - SANDBOX mode
FIPS enabled:                   true
Server IP addresses:            192.168.242.128
Enabled services:
Identity Portal               192.168.242.128 [OK] WildFly (Portal) is running (pid 10570), port 8081
                                              [OK] Identity Portal Admin UI is available
                                              [OK] Identity Portal User Console is available
                                              [OK] Java heap size used by Identity Portal: 810MB/1512MB (53%)
Oracle Database Express 11g   192.168.242.128 [OK] Oracle Express Edition started
Identity Governance           192.168.242.128 [OK] WildFly (IG) is running (pid 8050), port 8082
                                              [OK] IG is running
                                              [OK] Java heap size used by Identity Governance: 807MB/1512MB (53%)
Identity Manager              192.168.242.128 [OK] WildFly (IDM) is running (pid 5550), port 8080
                                              [OK] IDM environment is started
                                              [OK] idm-userstore-router-caim-srv-01 started
                                              [OK] Java heap size used by Identity Manager: 1649MB/4096MB (40%)
Provisioning Server           192.168.242.128 [OK] im_ps is running
                                              [OK] co file usage: 1MB/250MB (0%)
                                              [OK] inc file usage: 1MB/250MB (0%)
                                              [OK] main file usage: 9MB/250MB (3%)
                                              [OK] notify file usage: 1MB/250MB (0%)
                                              [OK] All DSAs are started
Connector Server              192.168.242.128 [OK] jcs is running
User Store                    192.168.242.128 [OK] STATS: number of objects in cache: 5
                                              [OK] file usage: 1MB/200MB (0%)
                                              [OK] UserStore_userstore-01 started
Central Log Server            192.168.242.128 [OK] rsyslogd (pid  1670) is running...
=== LAST UPDATED: Fri May  1 12:15:05 CDT 2020 ====
*** [WARN] Volume / has 13% Free space (6.2G out of 47G)
config@cluster01 VAPP-14.3.0 (192.168.242.128):~ >

A view into rotating the SSH RSA keys for the CONFIG UserID

# CONFIG - On local vApp host
ls -lart .ssh     [view any prior files]
echo y | ssh-keygen -b 4096 -N Password01 -C $USER -f $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
IP=192.168.242.135;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh-keyscan -p 22 $IP >> .ssh/known_hosts
cp -r -p .ssh/id_rsa.pub .ssh/authorized_keys
rm -rf /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar
tar -cvf /tmp/`/bin/date -u +%s`.$USER.ssh-keys.tar .ssh
ls -lart /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar
eval `ssh-agent` && ssh-add           [Enter Password for SSH RSA Private Key]
IP=192.168.242.136;scp `ls /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar`  config@$IP:
IP=192.168.242.137;scp `ls /tmp/*.$USER.ssh-keys.tar`  config@$IP:
USER=config;ssh -tt $USER@192.168.242.136 "tar -xvf *.$USER.ssh-keys.tar"
USER=config;ssh -tt $USER@192.168.242.137 "tar -xvf *.$USER.ssh-keys.tar"
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh $IP `/bin/date -u +%s`
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh $IP `/bin/date -u +%s`
IP=192.168.242.136;ssh -vv $IP              [Use -vv to troubleshoot ssh process]
IP=192.168.242.137;ssh -vv $IP 				[Use -vv to troubleshoot ssh process]